The impact of missed doses on disease-free survival (DFS)1
Recent data in high-risk B-ALL patients from COG published by Gupta et al 2020 demonstrated1:
- Significantly inferior DFS was seen in patients who did not receive all prescribed asparaginase doses
- Patients receiving all Erwinia substitution doses achieved similar DFS compared with patients receiving all PEG-asparaginase doses
- Asparaginase missed doses is a predictor of DFS among patients, even when adjusted for other risk factors such as age, cytogenetics, time to response, WBC count, and CNS status
Disease-free survival of NCI High-Risk Patients Stratified by Asparaginase Received1
Adapted from Gupta et al, 2020.1
Missed asparaginase doses can lead to compromised patient outcomes1
Missing asparaginase doses increased the risk of an eventa
Of patients who failed to receive
all prescribed asparaginase doses
aEvent defined as DFS from time of maintenance initiation to relapse, death, development of a second malignant neoplasm, or last follow-up.1
bPatients with NCI high-risk B-ALL.1
RYLAZE is indicated as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen given by intramuscular injection for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in adult and pediatric patients 1 month or older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
RYLAZE is contraindicated in patients with a history of:
- Serious hypersensitivity reactions to Erwinia asparaginase, including anaphylaxis
- Serious pancreatitis during previous asparaginase therapy
- Serious thrombosis during previous asparaginase therapy
- Serious hemorrhagic events during previous asparaginase therapy
Warnings and Precautions
Hypersensitivity reactions after the use of RYLAZE occurred in 29% of patients in clinical trials, and it was severe in 6% of patients. Anaphylaxis was observed in 2% of patients after intramuscular administration. Discontinuation of RYLAZE due to hypersensitivity reactions occurred in 5% of patients. Hypersensitivity reactions were higher in patients who received intravenous asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn. The intravenous route of administration is not approved.
In patients administered RYLAZE intramuscularly in clinical trials, the median number of doses of RYLAZE that patients received prior to the onset of the first hypersensitivity reaction was 12 doses (range: 1-64 doses). The most commonly observed reaction was rash (19%), and 1 patient (1%) experienced a severe rash.
Hypersensitivity reactions observed with L-asparaginase class products include angioedema, urticaria, lip swelling, eye swelling, rash or erythema, blood pressure decreased, bronchospasm, dyspnea, and pruritus.
Premedicate patients prior to administration of RYLAZE as recommended. Because of the risk of serious allergic reactions (e.g., life-threatening anaphylaxis), administer RYLAZE in a setting with resuscitation equipment and other agents necessary to treat anaphylaxis (e.g., epinephrine, oxygen, intravenous steroids, antihistamines). Discontinue RYLAZE in patients with serious hypersensitivity reactions.
Pancreatitis, including elevated amylase or lipase, was reported in 20% of patients in clinical trials of RYLAZE and was severe in 8%. Symptomatic pancreatitis occurred in 7% of patients, and it was severe in 6% of patients. Elevated amylase or lipase without symptomatic pancreatitis was observed in 13% of patients treated with RYLAZE. Hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis have been reported with L-asparaginase class products.
Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of pancreatitis, which, if left untreated, could be fatal. Evaluate patients with symptoms compatible with pancreatitis to establish a diagnosis. Assess serum amylase and lipase levels in patients with any signs or symptoms of pancreatitis. Discontinue RYLAZE in patients with severe or hemorrhagic pancreatitis. In the case of mild pancreatitis, withhold RYLAZE until the signs and symptoms subside and amylase and/or lipase levels return to 1.5 times the ULN. After resolution of mild pancreatitis, treatment with RYLAZE may be resumed.
Serious thrombotic events, including sagittal sinus thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, have been reported in 1% of patients following treatment with RYLAZE. Discontinue RYLAZE for a thrombotic event, and administer appropriate antithrombotic therapy. Consider resumption of treatment with RYLAZE only if the patient had an uncomplicated thrombosis.
Bleeding was reported in 25% of patients treated with RYLAZE, and it was severe in 2%. Most commonly observed reactions were bruising (12%) and nose bleed (9%).
In patients treated with L-asparaginase class products, hemorrhage may be associated with increased prothrombin time (PT), increased partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and hypofibrinogenemia. Consider appropriate replacement therapy in patients with severe or symptomatic coagulopathy.
Elevated bilirubin and/or transaminases occurred in 75% of patients treated with RYLAZE in clinical trials, and 26% had Grade ≥3 elevations. Elevated bilirubin occurred in 28% of patients treated with RYLAZE in clinical trials, and 2% had Grade ≥3 elevations. Elevated transaminases occurred in 73% of patients treated with RYLAZE in clinical trials, and 25% had Grade ≥3 elevations.
Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity. Evaluate bilirubin and transaminases prior to treatment every 2-3 weeks and as indicated clinically during treatment with RYLAZE. In the event of serious liver toxicity, discontinue treatment with RYLAZE and provide supportive care.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence >20%) with RYLAZE are abnormal liver test, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, infection, fatigue, headache, febrile neutropenia, pyrexia, hemorrhage, stomatitis, abdominal pain, decreased appetite, drug hypersensitivity, hyperglycemia, diarrhea, pancreatitis, and hypokalemia.
Use in Specific Populations
Pregnancy and Lactation
RYLAZE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective non-hormonal contraceptive methods during treatment with RYLAZE and for 3 months after the last dose. Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with RYLAZE and for 1 week after the last dose.
Please see full Prescribing Information.
B-ALL=B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; CI=confidence interval; CNS=central nervous system; COG=Children’s Oncology Group; HR=hazard ratio; HSR=hypersensitivity reaction; NCI=National Cancer Institute; PEG-asparaginase=polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase; WBC=white blood cell.
Reference: 1. Gupta S, Wang C, Raetz EA, et al. Impact of asparaginase discontinuation on outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2020;38(17):1897-1905.